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850-651-6565

Florida Theft and Robbery Law

812.012 Definitions.--As used in ss. 812.012-812.037:

(1) "Cargo" means partial or entire shipments, containers, or cartons of property which are contained in or on a trailer, motortruck, aircraft, vessel, warehouse, freight station, freight consolidation facility, or air navigation facility. Note: Notice how extensive the definitions are, each one having a subsection.

(2) "Dealer in property" means any person in the business of buying and selling property.

(3) "Obtains or uses" means any manner of:

(a) Taking or exercising control over property.

(b) Making any unauthorized use, disposition, or transfer of property.

(c) Obtaining property by fraud, willful misrepresentation of a future act, or false promise.

(d)1. Conduct previously known as stealing; larceny; purloining; abstracting; embezzlement; misapplication; misappropriation; conversion; or obtaining money or property by false pretenses, fraud, or deception; or

2. Other conduct similar in nature.

(4) "Property" means anything of value, and includes:

(a) Real property, including things growing on, affixed to, and found in land.

(b) Tangible or intangible personal property, including rights, privileges, interests, and claims.

(c) Services.

(5) "Property of another" means property in which a person has an interest upon which another person is not privileged to infringe without consent, whether or not the other person also has an interest in the property.

(6) "Services" means anything of value resulting from a person's physical or mental labor or skill, or from the use, possession, or presence of property, and includes:

(a) Repairs or improvements to property.

(b) Professional services.

(c) Private, public, or government communication, transportation, power, water, or sanitation services.

(d) Lodging accommodations.

(e) Admissions to places of exhibition or entertainment.

(7) "Stolen property" means property that has been the subject of any criminally wrongful taking.

(8) "Traffic" means:

(a) To sell, transfer, distribute, dispense, or otherwise dispose of property.

(b) To buy, receive, possess, obtain control of, or use property with the intent to sell, transfer, distribute, dispense, or otherwise dispose of such property.

(9) "Enterprise" means any individual, sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, business trust, union chartered under the laws of this state, or other legal entity, or any un-chartered union, association, or group of individuals associated in fact although not a legal entity.

(10) "Value" means value determined according to any of the following:

(a)1. Value means the market value of the property at the time and place of the offense or, if such cannot be satisfactorily ascertained, the cost of replacement of the property within a reasonable time after the offense.

2. The value of a written instrument that does not have a readily ascertainable market value, in the case of an instrument such as a check, draft, or promissory note, is the amount due or collectible or is, in the case of any other instrument which creates, releases, discharges, or otherwise affects any valuable legal right, privilege, or obligation, the greatest amount of economic loss that the owner of the instrument might reasonably suffer by virtue of the loss of the instrument.

3. The value of a trade secret that does not have a readily ascertainable market value is any reasonable value representing the damage to the owner, suffered by reason of losing an advantage over those who do not know of or use the trade secret.

(b) If the value of property cannot be ascertained, the trier of fact may find the value to be not less than a certain amount; if no such minimum value can be ascertained, the value is an amount less than $100.

(c) Amounts of value of separate properties involved in thefts committed pursuant to one scheme or course of conduct, whether the thefts are from the same person or from several persons, may be aggregated in determining the grade of the offense.

812.014 Theft.--

(1) A person commits theft if he or she knowingly obtains or uses, or endeavors to obtain or to use, the property of another with intent to, either temporarily or permanently:

(a) Deprive the other person of a right to the property or a benefit from the property.

(b) Appropriate the property to his or her own use or to the use of any person not entitled to the use of the property.

(2)(a)1. If the property stolen is valued at $100,000 or more; or

2. If the property stolen is cargo valued at $50,000 or more that has entered the stream of interstate or intrastate commerce from the shipper's loading platform to the consignee's receiving dock; or

3. If the offender commits any grand theft and:

a. In the course of committing the offense the offender uses a motor vehicle as an instrumentality, other than merely as a getaway vehicle, to assist in committing the offense and thereby damages the real property of another; or

b. In the course of committing the offense the offender causes damage to the real or personal property of another in excess of $1,000,

the offender commits grand theft in the first degree, punishable as a felony of the first degree, as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b)1. If the property stolen is valued at $20,000 or more, but less than $100,000;

2. The property stolen is cargo valued at less than $50,000 that has entered the stream of interstate or intrastate commerce from the shipper's loading platform to the consignee's receiving dock; or

3. The property stolen is emergency medical equipment, valued at $300 or more, that is taken from a facility licensed under chapter 395 or from an aircraft or vehicle permitted under chapter 401,

the offender commits grand theft in the second degree, punishable as a felony of the second degree, as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Emergency medical equipment means mechanical or electronic apparatus used to provide emergency services and care as defined in s. 395.002(10) or to treat medical emergencies.

(c) It is grand theft of the third degree and a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property stolen is:

1. Valued at $300 or more, but less than $5,000.

2. Valued at $5,000 or more, but less than $10,000.

3. Valued at $10,000 or more, but less than $20,000.

4. A will, codicil, or other testamentary instrument.

5. A firearm.

6. A motor vehicle, except as provided in paragraph (2)(a).

7. Any commercially farmed animal, including any animal of the equine, bovine, or swine class, or other grazing animal, and including aquaculture species raised at a certified aquaculture facility. If the property stolen is aquaculture species raised at a certified aquaculture facility, then a $10,000 fine shall be imposed.

8. Any fire extinguisher.

9. Any amount of citrus fruit consisting of 2,000 or more individual pieces of fruit.

10. Taken from a designated construction site identified by the posting of a sign as provided for in s. 810.09(2)(d).

11. Any stop sign.

12. Anhydrous ammonia.

(d) It is grand theft of the third degree and a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property stolen is valued at $100 or more, but less than $300, and is taken from a dwelling as defined in s. 810.011(2) or from the unenclosed curtilage of a dwelling pursuant to s. 810.09(1).

(e) Except as provided in paragraph (d), if the property stolen is valued at $100 or more, but less than $300, the offender commits petit theft of the first degree, punishable as a misdemeanor of the first degree, as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3)(a) Theft of any property not specified in subsection (2) is petit theft of the second degree and a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, and as provided in subsection (5), as applicable.

(b) A person who commits petit theft and who has previously been convicted of any theft commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) A person who commits petit theft and who has previously been convicted two or more times of any theft commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(d)1. Every judgment of guilty or not guilty of a petit theft shall be in writing, signed by the judge, and recorded by the clerk of the circuit court. The judge shall cause to be affixed to every such written judgment of guilty of petit theft, in open court and in the presence of such judge, the fingerprints of the defendant against whom such judgment is rendered. Such fingerprints shall be affixed beneath the judge's signature to such judgment. Beneath such fingerprints shall be appended a certificate to the following effect:

"I hereby certify that the above and foregoing fingerprints on this judgment are the fingerprints of the defendant, _____, and that they were placed thereon by said defendant in my presence, in open court, this the _____ day of _____, (year) ."

Such certificate shall be signed by the judge, whose signature thereto shall be followed by the word "Judge."

2. Any such written judgment of guilty of a petit theft, or a certified copy thereof, is admissible in evidence in the courts of this state as prima facie evidence that the fingerprints appearing thereon and certified by the judge are the fingerprints of the defendant against whom such judgment of guilty of a petit theft was rendered.

(4) Failure to comply with the terms of a lease when the lease is for a term of 1 year or longer shall not constitute a violation of this section unless demand for the return of the property leased has been made in writing and the lessee has failed to return the property within 7 days of his or her receipt of the demand for return of the property. A demand mailed by certified or registered mail, evidenced by return receipt, to the last known address of the lessee shall be deemed sufficient and equivalent to the demand having been received by the lessee, whether such demand shall be returned undelivered or not.

(5)(a) No person shall drive a motor vehicle so as to cause it to leave the premises of an establishment at which gasoline offered for retail sale was dispensed into the fuel tank of such motor vehicle unless the payment of authorized charge for the gasoline dispensed has been made.

(b) In addition to the penalties prescribed in paragraph (3)(a), every judgment of guilty of a petit theft for property described in this subsection shall provide for the suspension of the convicted person's driver's license. The court shall forward the driver's license to the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles in accordance with s. 322.25.

1. The first suspension of a driver's license under this subsection shall be for a period of up to 6 months.

2. The second or subsequent suspension of a driver's license under this subsection shall be for a period of 1 year.

812.0145 Theft from persons 65 years of age or older; reclassification of offenses.--

(1) A person who is convicted of theft of more than $1,000 from a person 65 years of age or older shall be ordered by the sentencing judge to make restitution to the victim of such offense and to perform up to 500 hours of community service work. Restitution and community service work shall be in addition to any fine or sentence which may be imposed and shall not be in lieu thereof.

(2) Whenever a person is charged with committing theft from a person 65 years of age or older, when he or she knows or has reason to believe that the victim was 65 years of age or older, the offense for which the person is charged shall be reclassified as follows:

(a) If the funds, assets, or property involved in the theft from a person 65 years of age or older is valued at $50,000 or more, the offender commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If the funds, assets, or property involved in the theft from a person 65 years of age or older is valued at $10,000 or more, but less than $50,000, the offender commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) If the funds, assets, or property involved in the theft from a person 65 years of age or older is valued at $300 or more, but less than $10,000, the offender commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

812.015 Retail and farm theft; transit fare evasion; mandatory fine; alternative punishment; detention and arrest; exemption from liability for false arrest; resisting arrest; penalties.--

(1) As used in this section:

(a) "Merchandise" means any personal property, capable of manual delivery, displayed, held, or offered for retail sale by a merchant.

(b) "Merchant" means an owner or operator, or the agent, consignee, employee, lessee, or officer of an owner or operator, of any premises or apparatus used for retail purchase or sale of any merchandise.

(c) "Value of merchandise" means the sale price of the merchandise at the time it was stolen or otherwise removed, depriving the owner of her or his lawful right to ownership and sale of said item.

(d) "Retail theft" means the taking possession of or carrying away of merchandise, property, money, or negotiable documents; altering or removing a label, universal product code, or price tag; transferring merchandise from one container to another; or removing a shopping cart, with intent to deprive the merchant of possession, use, benefit, or full retail value.

(e) "Farm produce" means livestock or any item grown, produced, or manufactured by a person owning, renting, or leasing land for the purpose of growing, producing, or manufacturing items for sale or personal use, either part time or full time.

(f) "Farmer" means a person who is engaging in the growing or producing of farm produce, milk products, eggs, or meat, either part time or full time, for personal consumption or for sale and who is the owner or lessee of the land or a person designated in writing by the owner or lessee to act as her or his agent. No person defined as a farm labor contractor pursuant to s. 450.28 shall be designated to act as an agent for purposes of this section.

(g) "Farm theft" means the unlawful taking possession of any items that are grown or produced on land owned, rented, or leased by another person.

(h) "anti-shoplifting or inventory control device" means a mechanism or other device designed and operated for the purpose of detecting the removal from a mercantile establishment or similar enclosure, or from a protected area within such an enclosure, of specially marked or tagged merchandise. The term includes any electronic or digital imaging or any video recording or other film used for security purposes and the cash register tape or other record made of the register receipt.

(i) "anti-shoplifting or inventory control device countermeasure" means any item or device which is designed, manufactured, modified, or altered to defeat any anti-shoplifting or inventory control device.

(j) "Transit fare evasion" means the unlawful refusal to pay the appropriate fare for transportation upon a mass transit vehicle, or to evade the payment of such fare, or to enter any mass transit vehicle or facility by any door, passageway, or gate, except as provided for the entry of fare-paying passengers, and shall constitute petit theft as proscribed by this chapter.

(k) "Mass transit vehicle" means buses, rail cars, or fixed-guideway mover systems operated by, or under contract to, state agencies, political subdivisions of the state, or municipalities for the transportation of fare-paying passengers.

(l) "Transit agency" means any state agency, political subdivision of the state, or municipality which operates mass transit vehicles.

(m) "Trespass" means the violation as described in s. 810.08.

(2) Upon a second or subsequent conviction for petit theft from a merchant, farmer, or transit agency, the offender shall be punished as provided in s. 812.014(3), except that the court shall impose a fine of not less than $50 or more than $1,000. However, in lieu of such fine, the court may require the offender to perform public services designated by the court. In no event shall any such offender be required to perform fewer than the number of hours of public service necessary to satisfy the fine assessed by the court, as provided by this subsection, at the minimum wage prevailing in the state at the time of sentencing.

(3)(a) A law enforcement officer, a merchant, a farmer, or a transit agency's employee or agent, who has probable cause to believe that a retail theft, farm theft, a transit fare evasion, or trespass, or unlawful use or attempted use of any anti-shoplifting or inventory control device countermeasure, has been committed by a person and, in the case of retail or farm theft, that the property can be recovered by taking the offender into custody may, for the purpose of attempting to effect such recovery or for prosecution, take the offender into custody and detain the offender in a reasonable manner for a reasonable length of time. In the case of a farmer, taking into custody shall be effectuated only on property owned or leased by the farmer. In the event the merchant, merchant's employee, farmer, or a transit agency's employee or agent takes the person into custody, a law enforcement officer shall be called to the scene immediately after the person has been taken into custody.

(b) The activation of an anti-shoplifting or inventory control device as a result of a person exiting an establishment or a protected area within an establishment shall constitute reasonable cause for the detention of the person so exiting by the owner or operator of the establishment or by an agent or employee of the owner or operator, provided sufficient notice has been posted to advise the patrons that such a device is being utilized. Each such detention shall be made only in a reasonable manner and only for a reasonable period of time sufficient for any inquiry into the circumstances surrounding the activation of the device.

(c) The taking into custody and detention by a law enforcement officer, merchant, merchant's employee, farmer, or a transit agency's employee or agent, if done in compliance with all the requirements of this subsection, shall not render such law enforcement officer, merchant, merchant's employee, farmer, or a transit agency's employee or agent, criminally or civilly liable for false arrest, false imprisonment, or unlawful detention.

(4) Any law enforcement officer may arrest, either on or off the premises and without warrant, any person the officer has probable cause to believe unlawfully possesses, or is unlawfully using or attempting to use or has used or attempted to use, any anti-shoplifting or inventory control device countermeasure or has committed theft in a retail or wholesale establishment or on commercial or private farm lands of a farmer or transit fare evasion or trespass.

(5)(a) A merchant, merchant's employee, farmer, or a transit agency's employee or agent who takes a person into custody, as provided in subsection (3), or who causes an arrest, as provided in subsection (4), of a person for retail theft, farm theft, transit fare evasion, or trespass shall not be criminally or civilly liable for false arrest or false imprisonment when the merchant, merchant's employee, farmer, or a transit agency's employee or agent has probable cause to believe that the person committed retail theft, farm theft, transit fare evasion, or trespass.

(b) If a merchant or merchant's employee takes a person into custody as provided in this section, or acts as a witness with respect to any person taken into custody as provided in this section, the merchant or merchant's employee may provide his or her business address rather than home address to any investigating law enforcement officer.

(6) An individual who, while committing or after committing theft of property, transit fare evasion, or trespass, resists the reasonable effort of a law enforcement officer, merchant, merchant's employee, farmer, or a transit agency's employee or agent to recover the property or cause the individual to pay the proper transit fare or vacate the transit facility which the law enforcement officer, merchant, merchant's employee, farmer, or a transit agency's employee or agent had probable cause to believe the individual had concealed or removed from its place of display or elsewhere or perpetrated a transit fare evasion or trespass commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, unless the individual did not know, or did not have reason to know, that the person seeking to recover the property was a law enforcement officer, merchant, merchant's employee, farmer, or a transit agency's employee or agent. For purposes of this section the charge of theft and the charge of resisting may be tried concurrently.

(7) It is unlawful to possess, or use or attempt to use, any anti-shoplifting or inventory control device countermeasure within any premises used for the retail purchase or sale of any merchandise. Any person who possesses any anti-shoplifting or inventory control device countermeasure within any premises used for the retail purchase or sale of any merchandise commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Any person who uses or attempts to use any anti-shoplifting or inventory control device countermeasure within any premises used for the retail purchase or sale of any merchandise commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(8) If a person commits retail theft, it is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property stolen is valued at $300 or more, and the person:

(a) Individually, or in concert with one or more other persons, coordinates the activities of one or more individuals in committing the offense, in which case the amount of each individual theft is aggregated to determine the value of the property stolen;

(b) Commits theft from more than one location within a 48-hour period, in which case the amount of each individual theft is aggregated to determine the value of the property stolen;

(c) Acts in concert with one or more other individuals within one or more establishments to distract the merchant, merchant's employee, or law enforcement officer in order to carry out the offense, or acts in other ways to coordinate efforts to carry out the offense; or

(d) Commits the offense through the purchase of merchandise in a package or box that contains merchandise other than, or in addition to, the merchandise purported to be contained in the package or box.

(9) Any person who violates subsection (8) and who has previously been convicted of a violation of subsection (8) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

812.0155 Suspension of driver's license following an adjudication of guilt for theft.--

(1) Except as provided in subsections (2) and (3), the court may order the suspension of the driver's license of each person adjudicated guilty of any misdemeanor violation of s. 812.014 or s. 812.015, regardless of the value of the property stolen. The court shall order the suspension of the driver's license of each person adjudicated guilty of any misdemeanor violation of s. 812.014 or s. 812.015 who has previously been convicted of such an offense. Upon ordering the suspension of the driver's license of the person adjudicated guilty, the court shall forward the driver's license of the person adjudicated guilty to the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles in accordance with s. 322.25.

(a) The first suspension of a driver's license under this subsection shall be for a period of up to 6 months.

(b) A second or subsequent suspension of a driver's license under this subsection shall be for 1 year.

(2) The court may revoke, suspend, or withhold issuance of a driver's license of a person less than 18 years of age who violates s. 812.014 or s. 812.015 as an alternative to sentencing the person to:

(a) Probation as defined in s. 985.03 or commitment to the Department of Juvenile Justice, if the person is adjudicated delinquent for such violation and has not previously been convicted of or adjudicated delinquent for any criminal offense, regardless of whether adjudication was withheld.

(b) Probation as defined in s. 985.03, commitment to the Department of Juvenile Justice, probation as defined in chapter 948, community control, or incarceration, if the person is convicted as an adult of such violation and has not previously been convicted of or adjudicated delinquent for any criminal offense, regardless of whether adjudication was withheld.

(3) As used in this subsection, the term "department" means the Department of Highway Safety and Motor Vehicles. A court that revokes, suspends, or withholds issuance of a driver's license under subsection (2) shall:

(a) If the person is eligible by reason of age for a driver's license or driving privilege, direct the department to revoke or withhold issuance of the person's driver's license or driving privilege for not less than 6 months and not more than 1 year;

(b) If the person's driver's license is under suspension or revocation for any reason, direct the department to extend the period of suspension or revocation by not less than 6 months and not more than 1 year; or

(c) If the person is ineligible by reason of age for a driver's license or driving privilege, direct the department to withhold issuance of the person's driver's license or driving privilege for not less than 6 months and not more than 1 year after the date on which the person would otherwise become eligible.

(4) Subsections (2) and (3) do not preclude the court from imposing any sanction specified or not specified in subsection (2) or subsection (3).

812.016 Possession of altered property.--Any dealer in property who knew or should have known that the identifying features, such as serial numbers and permanently affixed labels, of property in his or her possession had been removed or altered without the consent of the manufacturer, shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as defined in ss. 775.082 and 775.083.

812.017 Use of a fraudulently obtained or false receipt.--

(1) Any person who requests a refund of merchandise, money, or any other thing of value through the use of a fraudulently obtained receipt or false receipt commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) Any person who obtains merchandise, money, or any other thing of value through the use of a fraudulently obtained receipt or false receipt commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

812.019 Dealing in stolen property.--

(1) Any person who traffics in, or endeavors to traffic in, property that he or she knows or should know was stolen shall be guilty of a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082, 775.083, and 775.084.

(2) Any person who initiates, organizes, plans, finances, directs, manages, or supervises the theft of property and traffics in such stolen property shall be guilty of a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in ss. 775.082, 775.083, and 775.084.

812.0191 Dealing in property paid for in whole or in part by the Medicaid program.--

(1) As used in this section, the term:

(a) "Property paid for in whole or in part by the Medicaid program" means any devices, goods, services, drugs, or any other property furnished or intended to be furnished to a recipient of benefits under the Medicaid program.

(b) "Value" means the amount billed to Medicaid for the property dispensed or the market value of the devices, goods, services, or drugs at the time and place of the offense. If the market value cannot be determined, the term means the replacement cost of the devices, goods, services, or drugs within a reasonable time after the offense.

(2) Any person who traffics in, or endeavors to traffic in, property that he or she knows or should have known was paid for in whole or in part by the Medicaid program commits a felony.

(a) If the value of the property involved is less than $20,000, the crime is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If the value of the property involved is $20,000 or more but less than $100,000, the crime is a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) If the value of the property involved is $100,000 or more, the crime is a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

The value of individual items of the devices, goods, services, drugs, or other property involved in distinct transactions committed during a single scheme or course of conduct, whether involving a single person or several persons, may be aggregated when determining the punishment for the offense.

(3) Any person who knowingly initiates, organizes, plans, finances, directs, manages, or supervises the obtaining of property paid for in whole or in part by the Medicaid program and who traffics in, or endeavors to traffic in, such property commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

812.0195 Dealing in stolen property by use of the Internet.--Any person in this state who uses the Internet to sell or offer for sale any merchandise or other property that the person knows, or has reasonable cause to believe, is stolen commits:

(1) A misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, if the value of the property is less than $300; or

(2) A felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the value of the property is $300 or more.

812.022 Evidence of theft or dealing in stolen property.--

(1) Proof that a person presented false identification, or identification not current with respect to name, address, place of employment, or other material aspects, in connection with the leasing of personal property, or failed to return leased property within 72 hours of the termination of the leasing agreement, unless satisfactorily explained, gives rise to an inference that such property was obtained or is now used with intent to commit theft.

(2) Except as provided in subsection (5), proof of possession of property recently stolen, unless satisfactorily explained, gives rise to an inference that the person in possession of the property knew or should have known that the property had been stolen.

(3) Proof of the purchase or sale of stolen property at a price substantially below the fair market value, unless satisfactorily explained, gives rise to an inference that the person buying or selling the property knew or should have known that the property had been stolen.

(4) Proof of the purchase or sale of stolen property by a dealer in property, out of the regular course of business or without the usual indicia of ownership other than mere possession, unless satisfactorily explained, gives rise to an inference that the person buying or selling the property knew or should have known that it had been stolen.

(5) Proof that a dealer who regularly deals in used property possesses stolen property upon which a name and phone number of a person other than the offeror of the property are conspicuously displayed gives rise to an inference that the dealer possessing the property knew or should have known that the property was stolen.

(a) If the name and phone number are for a business that rents property, the dealer avoids the inference by contacting such business, prior to accepting the property, to verify that the property was not stolen from such business. If the name and phone number are not for a business that rents property, the dealer avoids the inference by contacting the local law enforcement agency in the jurisdiction where the dealer is located, prior to accepting the property, to verify that the property has not been reported stolen. An accurate written record, which contains the number called, the date and time of such call, and the name and place of employment of the person who verified that the property was not stolen, is sufficient evidence to avoid the inference pursuant to this subsection.

(b) This subsection does not apply to:

1. Persons, entities, or transactions exempt from chapter 538.

2. Used sports equipment that does not contain a serial number, printed or recorded materials, computer software, or videos or video games.

3. A dealer who implements, in a continuous and consistent manner, a program for identification and return of stolen property that meets the following criteria:

a. When a dealer is offered property for pawn or purchase that contains conspicuous identifying information that includes a name and phone number, or a dealer is offered property for pawn or purchase that contains ownership information that is affixed to the property pursuant to a written agreement with a business entity or group of associated business entities, the dealer will promptly contact the individual or company whose name is affixed to the property by phone to confirm that the property has not been stolen. If the individual or business contacted indicates that the property has been stolen, the dealer shall not accept the property.

b. If the dealer is unable to verify whether the property is stolen from the individual or business, and if the dealer accepts the property that is later determined to have been stolen, the dealer will voluntarily return the property at no cost and without the necessity of a replevin action, if the property owner files the appropriate theft reports with law enforcement and enters into an agreement with the dealer to actively participate in the prosecution of the person or persons who perpetrated the crime.

c. If a dealer is required by law to complete and submit a transaction form to law enforcement, the dealer shall include all conspicuously displayed ownership information on the transaction form.

812.025 Charging theft and dealing in stolen property.--Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a single indictment or information may, under proper circumstances, charge theft and dealing in stolen property in connection with one scheme or course of conduct in separate counts that may be consolidated for trial, but the trier of fact may return a guilty verdict on one or the other, but not both, of the counts.

812.028 Defenses precluded.--It shall not constitute a defense to a prosecution for any violation of the provisions of ss. 812.012-812.037 that:

(1) Any stratagem or deception, including the use of an undercover operative or law enforcement officer, was employed.

(2) A facility or an opportunity to engage in conduct in violation of any provision of this act was provided.

(3) Property that was not stolen was offered for sale as stolen property.

(4) A law enforcement officer solicited a person predisposed to engage in conduct in violation of any provision of ss. 812.012-812.037 in order to gain evidence against that person, provided such solicitation would not induce an ordinary law-abiding person to violate any provision of ss. 812.012-812.037.

812.032 Supplemental fine.--In addition to any other fine authorized by law, a person found guilty of violating any provision of ss. 812.012-812.037, who has thereby derived anything of value, or who has caused personal injury, property damage, or other loss, may, upon motion of the state attorney, be sentenced to pay a fine that does not exceed twice the gross value gained or twice the gross loss caused, whichever is greater, plus the cost of investigation and prosecution. The court shall hold a hearing to determine the amount of the fine to be imposed under this section.

812.035 Civil remedies; limitation on civil and criminal actions.--

(1) Any circuit court may, after making due provisions for the rights of innocent persons, enjoin violations of the provisions of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 by issuing appropriate orders and judgments, including, but not limited to:

(a) Ordering any defendant to divest himself or herself of any interest in any enterprise, including real estate.

(b) Imposing reasonable restrictions upon the future activities or investments of any defendant, including, but not limited to, prohibiting any defendant from engaging in the same type of endeavor as the enterprise in which he or she was engaged in violation of the provisions of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081.

(c) Ordering the dissolution or reorganization of any enterprise.

(d) Ordering the suspension or revocation of any license, permit, or prior approval granted to any enterprise by any department or agency of the state.

(e) Ordering the forfeiture of the charter of a corporation organized under the laws of the state or the revocation of a certificate authorizing a foreign corporation to conduct business within the state, upon finding that the board of directors or a managerial agent acting on behalf of the corporation, in conducting the affairs of the corporation, has authorized or engaged in conduct in violation of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 and that, for the prevention of future criminal activity, the public interest requires the charter of the corporation forfeited and the corporation dissolved or the certificate revoked.

(2) All property, real or personal, including money, used in the course of, intended for use in the course of, derived from, or realized through conduct in violation of a provision of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 is subject to civil forfeiture to the state. The state shall dispose of all forfeited property as soon as commercially feasible. If property is not exercisable or transferable for value by the state, it shall expire. All forfeitures or dispositions under this section shall be made with due provision for the rights of innocent persons.

(3) Property subject to forfeiture under this section may be seized by a law enforcement officer upon court process. Seizure without process may be made if:

(a) The seizure is incident to a lawful arrest or search or an inspection under an administrative inspection warrant.

(b) The property subject to seizure has been the subject of a prior judgment in favor of the state in a forfeiture proceeding based upon this section.

(c) The law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that the property is directly or indirectly dangerous to the public health or safety.

(d) The law enforcement officer has probable cause to believe that the property is otherwise subject to forfeiture under this section.

(4) In the event of a seizure under subsection (3), a forfeiture proceeding shall be instituted promptly. When property is seized under this section, pending forfeiture and final disposition, the law enforcement officer may:

(a) Place the property under seal.

(b) Remove the property to a place designated by the court.

(c) Require another agency authorized by law to take custody of the property and remove it to an appropriate location.

(5) The Department of Legal Affairs, any state attorney, or any state agency having jurisdiction over conduct in violation of a provision of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 may institute civil proceedings under this section. In any action brought under this section, the circuit court shall proceed as soon as practicable to the hearing and determination. Pending final determination, the circuit court may at any time enter such injunctions, prohibitions, or restraining orders, or take such actions, including the acceptance of satisfactory performance bonds, as the court may deem proper.

(6) Any aggrieved person may institute a proceeding under subsection (1). In such proceeding, relief shall be granted in conformity with the principles that govern the granting of injunctive relief from threatened loss or damage in other civil cases, except that no showing of special or irreparable damage to the person shall have to be made. Upon the execution of proper bond against damages for an injunction improvidently granted and a showing of immediate danger of significant loss or damage, a temporary restraining order and a preliminary injunction may be issued in any such action before a final determination on the merits.

(7) The state, including any of its agencies, instrumentalities, subdivisions, or municipalities, if it proves by clear and convincing evidence that it has been injured in any fashion by reason of any violation of the provisions of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081, has a cause of action for threefold the actual damages sustained and, in any such action, is entitled to minimum damages in the amount of $200 and shall also recover court costs and reasonable attorney's fees in the trial and appellate courts. In no event shall punitive damages be awarded under this section. The defendant shall be entitled to recover reasonable attorney's fees and court costs in the trial and appellate courts upon a finding that the claimant raised a claim which was without substantial fact or legal support.

(8) A final judgment or decree rendered in favor of the state in any criminal proceeding under ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 shall estop the defendant in any subsequent civil action or proceeding as to all matters as to which such judgment or decree would be an estoppel as between the parties.

(9) The Department of Legal Affairs may, upon timely application, intervene in any civil action or proceeding brought under subsection (6) or subsection (7) if he or she certifies that, in his or her opinion, the action or proceeding is of general public importance. In such action or proceeding, the state shall be entitled to the same relief as if the Department of Legal Affairs had instituted this action or proceeding.

(10) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a criminal or civil action or proceeding under ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 may be commenced at any time within 5 years after the cause of action accrues; however, in a criminal proceeding under ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081, the period of limitation does not run during any time when the defendant is continuously absent from the state or is without a reasonably ascertainable place of abode or work within the state, but in no case shall this extend the period of limitation otherwise applicable by more than 1 year. If a criminal prosecution or civil action or other proceeding is brought, or intervened in, to punish, prevent, or restrain any violation of the provisions of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081, the running of the period of limitations prescribed by this section with respect to any cause of action arising under subsection (6) or subsection (7) which is based in whole or in part upon any matter complained of in any such prosecution, action, or proceeding shall be suspended during the pendency of such prosecution, action, or proceeding and for 2 years following its termination.

(11) The application of one civil remedy under any provision of ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 shall not preclude the application of any other remedy, civil or criminal, under ss. 812.012-812.037 or s. 812.081 or any other section of the Florida Statutes.

812.037 Construction of ss. 812.012-812.037.--Notwithstanding s. 775.021, ss. 812.012-812.037 shall not be construed strictly or liberally, but shall be construed in light of their purposes to achieve their remedial goals.

812.052 Certain purchases prohibited.--It shall be unlawful for any person to purchase any object used to commemorate a deceased person or placed in memory of a deceased person, or any part of such object, unless the same is sold by an authorized representative of the deceased person or of the cemetery in which such object was placed. Violation of this provision shall be a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

812.055 Physical inspection of junkyards, scrap metal processing plants, salvage yards, licensed motor vehicle or vessel dealers, repair shops, parking lots, public garages, towing and storage facilities.--

(1) Any law enforcement officer shall have the right to inspect any junkyard; scrap metal processing plant; motor vehicle or vessel salvage yard; licensed motor vehicle or vessel dealer's lot; motor vehicle, vessel, or outboard repair shop; parking lot; public garage; towing and storage facility; or other establishment dealing with salvaged motor vehicle, vessel, or outboard parts.

(2) Such physical inspection shall be conducted during normal business hours and shall be for the purpose of locating stolen vehicles, vessels, or outboard motors; investigating the titling and registration of vehicles or vessels; inspecting vehicles, vessels, or outboard motors wrecked or dismantled; or inspecting records required in ss. 319.30 and 713.78.

812.061 Larceny; return of property to owner; procedure.--In every instance in which any money or motor vehicle shall have been taken from its rightful owner under circumstances constituting larceny of such money or motor vehicle and such money or motor vehicle is being held by state, county or municipal officials as evidence, the rightful owner of such money or motor vehicle may obtain the return and possession thereof in the following manner:

(1) The rightful owner shall file a petition in the court having criminal jurisdiction describing the money or motor vehicle, the time and manner in which the same was taken from the rightful owner, the value thereof if the same is money or motor vehicle, and that the petitioner is the true and lawful owner thereof. Such petition shall be under oath, sworn to by the petitioner or, if the petitioner if a corporation, by a duly authorized officer or agent thereof, or by such person other than the petitioner who shall have actual knowledge of the facts alleged in such petition.

(2) Notice of the filing of such petition and a copy thereof shall be served upon any person charged with the larceny of the money or motor vehicle involved in the same manner and for the same fee as the service of a summons.

(3) If no person has been charged by indictment or information with larceny of the money or motor vehicle involved, or if a person has been so charged and cannot be found within the jurisdiction of the court out of which capias has issued and that fact has been noted on the return of such capias, then the petitioner shall publish in a newspaper of general circulation within the county in which the alleged larceny occurred once a week for 2 consecutive weeks, two publications being sufficient, notice of the filing of such petition. Such notice shall describe the money or motor vehicle involved and the time and particular place of its taking.

(4) Copies of the mentioned petition shall be furnished the officer having custody of the money or motor vehicle involved and also the prosecuting officer of the court having criminal jurisdiction and such officers shall be notified of any hearings and proceedings had upon such petition.

(5) Within 5 days after receipt of service of the notice hereinabove provided or within 10 days after the last publication of the mentioned notice, any person other than the petitioner claiming title or right of possession to the money or motor vehicle involved shall file his or her objections to the granting of such petition. Such objections shall be under oath of the person making them and shall set forth facts showing that the petitioner is not the rightful owner or not entitled to possession. If the person interposing objections to the petition desires that the question of ownership or right to possession be resolved by a jury, he or she shall make and file a demand for a jury trial at the time of filing his or her objections. If the objector fails to demand a jury trial at such time he or she shall be deemed to have waived such right.

(6) If objections are filed, as herein provided, the court having criminal jurisdiction may order the pleadings transferred to the court having civil jurisdiction of the cause where the same shall be adjudicated upon the pleadings, or he or she may defer hearing the matter until the criminal case has been adjudicated.

(7) If no objections are filed within the time herein provided, the court having criminal jurisdiction shall hear the matter and may, if satisfied that the petitioner is the rightful owner of the money or motor vehicle involved, order such money or motor vehicle returned to the petitioner. The court may, in its discretion, require the petitioner to post a bond in such amount as the court shall deem proper, conditioned that the petitioner will return the motor vehicle or the value of the money to the court within such time as shall be fixed by the court in the event it should be subsequently determined in judicial proceedings that the petitioner is not the rightful owner of such money or motor vehicle.

(8) When money or motor vehicle is returned to the rightful owner, as hereinabove provided, the court shall direct the clerk to make a detailed inventory description of such money or motor vehicle. The clerk in compliance with such direction shall make such inventory and description, including photographs of the motor vehicle involved where practicable and certify the same as being a true and correct inventory and description. The certified inventory and description shall then be filed by the clerk among the records of his or her office.

(9) In any trial involving the larceny of money or motor vehicle which has been returned to the rightful owner, as hereinabove provided, and it shall be necessary therein to adduce testimony concerning such money or motor vehicle, secondary evidence, including the certified inventory and description thereof shall be admissible in the same manner and to the same effect as would the admission of the said money or motor vehicle, had the same not been returned.

(10) The fact that any person charged with the larceny of money or motor vehicle has failed to object to the return of such money or motor vehicle to the alleged rightful owner thereof, or the fact that such money or motor vehicle has been returned to the alleged rightful owner thereof under the provisions of this law, shall not be offered, received or considered as evidence either for or against the defendant in such criminal action.

812.062 Notification to owner and law enforcement agency initiating stolen motor vehicle report upon recovery of stolen vehicle.--

(1) Whenever any law enforcement agency recovers a motor vehicle which has been unlawfully taken from its owner, it shall, within 72 hours, notify, by teletype or by any other speedy means available, the law enforcement agency which initiated the stolen vehicle report of the recovery. The law enforcement agency which initiated the stolen vehicle report shall, within 7 days after notification, notify, if known, the registered owner, the insurer, and any registered lienholder of the vehicle of the recovery.

(2) If notification has not been made within the 7-day period by the initiating agency, then notification shall be made immediately by certified letter, return receipt requested, by the law enforcement agency which initiated the stolen vehicle report.

812.081 Trade secrets; theft, embezzlement; unlawful copying; definitions; penalty.--

(1) As used in this section:

(a) "Article" means any object, device, machine, material, substance, or composition of matter, or any mixture or copy thereof, whether in whole or in part, including any complete or partial writing, record, recording, drawing, sample, specimen, prototype model, photograph, microorganism, blueprint, map, or copy thereof.

(b) "Representing" means completely or partially describing, depicting, embodying, containing, constituting, reflecting, or recording.

(c) "Trade secret" means the whole or any portion or phase of any formula, pattern, device, combination of devices, or compilation of information which is for use, or is used, in the operation of a business and which provides the business an advantage, or an opportunity to obtain an advantage, over those who do not know or use it. "Trade secret" includes any scientific, technical, or commercial information, including any design, process, procedure, list of suppliers, list of customers, business code, or improvement thereof. Irrespective of novelty, invention, patentability, the state of the prior art, and the level of skill in the business, art, or field to which the subject matter pertains, a trade secret is considered to be:

1. Secret;

2. Of value;

3. For use or in use by the business; and

4. Of advantage to the business, or providing an opportunity to obtain an advantage, over those who do not know or use it

when the owner thereof takes measures to prevent it from becoming available to persons other than those selected by the owner to have access thereto for limited purposes.

(d) "Copy" means any facsimile, replica, photograph, or other reproduction in whole or in part of an article and any note, drawing, or sketch made of or from an article or part or portion thereof.

(2) Any person who, with intent to deprive or withhold from the owner thereof the control of a trade secret, or with an intent to appropriate a trade secret to his or her own use or to the use of another, steals or embezzles an article representing a trade secret or without authority makes or causes to be made a copy of an article representing a trade secret is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3) In a prosecution for a violation of the provisions of this section, it is no defense that the person so charged returned or intended to return the article so stolen, embezzled, or copied.

812.13 Robbery.--

(1) "Robbery" means the taking of money or other property which may be the subject of larceny from the person or custody of another, with intent to either permanently or temporarily deprive the person or the owner of the money or other property, when in the course of the taking there is the use of force, violence, assault, or putting in fear.

(2)(a) If in the course of committing the robbery the offender carried a firearm or other deadly weapon, then the robbery is a felony of the first degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of years not exceeding life imprisonment or as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If in the course of committing the robbery the offender carried a weapon, then the robbery is a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) If in the course of committing the robbery the offender carried no firearm, deadly weapon, or other weapon, then the robbery is a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3)(a) An act shall be deemed "in the course of committing the robbery" if it occurs in an attempt to commit robbery or in flight after the attempt or commission.

(b) An act shall be deemed "in the course of the taking" if it occurs either prior to, contemporaneous with, or subsequent to the taking of the property and if it and the act of taking constitute a continuous series of acts or events.

812.131 Robbery by sudden snatching.--

(1) "Robbery by sudden snatching" means the taking of money or other property from the victim's person, with intent to permanently or temporarily deprive the victim or the owner of the money or other property, when, in the course of the taking, the victim was or became aware of the taking. In order to satisfy this definition, it is not necessary to show that:

(a) The offender used any amount of force beyond that effort necessary to obtain possession of the money or other property; or

(b) There was any resistance offered by the victim to the offender or that there was injury to the victim's person.

(2)(a) If, in the course of committing a robbery by sudden snatching, the offender carried a firearm or other deadly weapon, the robbery by sudden snatching is a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If, in the course of committing a robbery by sudden snatching, the offender carried no firearm or other deadly weapon, the robbery by sudden snatching is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3)(a) An act shall be deemed "in the course of committing a robbery by sudden snatching" if the act occurs in an attempt to commit robbery by sudden snatching or in fleeing after the attempt or commission.

(b) An act shall be deemed "in the course of the taking" if the act occurs prior to, contemporaneous with, or subsequent to the taking of the property and if such act and the act of taking constitute a continuous series of acts or events.

812.133 Carjacking.--

(1) "Carjacking" means the taking of a motor vehicle which may be the subject of larceny from the person or custody of another, with intent to either permanently or temporarily deprive the person or the owner of the motor vehicle, when in the course of the taking there is the use of force, violence, assault, or putting in fear.

(2)(a) If in the course of committing the carjacking the offender carried a firearm or other deadly weapon, then the carjacking is a felony of the first degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of years not exceeding life imprisonment or as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If in the course of committing the carjacking the offender carried no firearm, deadly weapon, or other weapon, then the carjacking is a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3)(a) An act shall be deemed "in the course of committing the carjacking" if it occurs in an attempt to commit carjacking or in flight after the attempt or commission.

(b) An act shall be deemed "in the course of the taking" if it occurs either prior to, contemporaneous with, or subsequent to the taking of the property and if it and the act of taking constitute a continuous series of acts or events.

812.135 Home-invasion robbery.--

(1) "Home-invasion robbery" means any robbery that occurs when the offender enters a dwelling with the intent to commit a robbery, and does commit a robbery of the occupants therein.

(2)(a) If in the course of committing the home-invasion robbery the person carries a firearm or other deadly weapon, the person commits a felony of the first degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of years not exceeding life imprisonment as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) If in the course of committing the home-invasion robbery the person carries a weapon, the person commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) If in the course of committing the home-invasion robbery the person carries no firearm, deadly weapon, or other weapon, the person commits a felony of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

812.14 Trespass and larceny with relation to utility fixtures.--

(1) As used in this section, "utility" includes any person, firm, corporation, association, or political subdivision, whether private, municipal, county, or cooperative, which is engaged in the sale, generation, provision, or delivery of gas, electricity, heat, water, oil, sewer service, telephone service, telegraph service, radio service, or telecommunication service.

(2) It is unlawful to:

(a) Willfully alter, tamper with, injure, or knowingly suffer to be injured any meter, meter seal, pipe, conduit, wire, line, cable, transformer, amplifier, or other apparatus or device belonging to a utility line service in such a manner as to cause loss or damage or to prevent any meter installed for registering electricity, gas, or water from registering the quantity which otherwise would pass through the same; or to alter the index or break the seal of any such meter; or in any way to hinder or interfere with the proper action or just registration of any such meter or device; or knowingly to use, waste, or suffer the waste, by any means, of electricity or gas or water passing through any such meter, wire, pipe, or fitting, or other appliance or appurtenance connected with or belonging to any such utility, after such meter, wire, pipe or fitting, or other appliance or appurtenance has been tampered with, injured, or altered.

(b) Make or cause to be made any connection with any wire, main, service pipe or other pipes, appliance, or appurtenance in such manner as to use, without the consent of the utility, any service or any electricity, gas, or water, or to cause to be supplied any service or electricity, gas, or water from a utility to any person, firm, or corporation or any lamp, burner, orifice, faucet, or other outlet whatsoever, without such service being reported for payment or such electricity, gas, or water passing through a meter provided by the utility and used for measuring and registering the quantity of electricity, gas, or water passing through the same.

(c) Use or receive the direct benefit from the use of a utility knowing, or under such circumstances as would induce a reasonable person to believe, that such direct benefits have resulted from any tampering with, altering of, or injury to any connection, wire, conductor, meter, pipe, conduit, line, cable, transformer, amplifier, or other apparatus or device owned, operated, or controlled by such utility, for the purpose of avoiding payment.

(3) The presence on property in the actual possession of a person of any device or alteration which affects the diversion or use of the services of a utility so as to avoid the registration of such use by or on a meter installed by the utility or so as to otherwise avoid the reporting of use of such service for payment shall be prima facie evidence of the violation of this section by such person; however, this presumption shall not apply unless:

(a) The presence of such a device or alteration can be attributed only to a deliberate act in furtherance of an intent to avoid payment for utility services;

(b) The person charged has received the direct benefit of the reduction of the cost of such utility services; and

(c) The customer or recipient of the utility services has received the direct benefit of such utility service for at least one full billing cycle.

(4) Any person who willfully violates this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(5) Whoever is found in a civil action to have violated the provisions hereof shall be liable to the utility involved in an amount equal to 3 times the amount of services unlawfully obtained or $1,000, whichever is greater.

(6) Nothing in this act shall be construed to apply to licensed and certified electrical contractors while performing usual and ordinary service in accordance with recognized standards.

812.15 Unauthorized reception of communications services; penalties.--

(1) As used in this section, the term:

(a) "Cable operator" means a communications service provider who provides some or all of its communications services pursuant to a "cable television franchise" issued by a "franchising authority," as those terms are defined in 47 U.S.C. s. 522(9) and (10) (1992).

(b) "Cable system" means any communications service network, system, or facility owned or operated by a cable operator.

(c) "Communications device" means any type of electronic mechanism, transmission line or connections and appurtenances thereto, instrument, device, machine, equipment, or software that is capable of intercepting, transmitting, acquiring, decrypting, or receiving any communications service, or any part, accessory, or component thereof, including any computer circuit, splitter, connector, switches, transmission hardware, security module, smart card, software, computer chip, electronic mechanism, or other component, accessory, or part of any communications device which is capable of facilitating the interception, transmission, retransmission, acquisition, decryption, or reception of any communications service.

(d) "Communications service" means any service lawfully provided for a charge or compensation by any cable system or by any radio, fiber optic, photooptical, electromagnetic, photoelectronic, satellite, microwave, data transmission, Internet-based, or wireless distribution network, system, or facility, including, but not limited to, any electronic, data, video, audio, Internet access, microwave, and radio communications, transmissions, signals, and services, and any such communications, transmissions, signals, and services lawfully provided for a charge or compensation, directly or indirectly by or through any of those networks, systems, or facilities.

(e) "Communications service provider" means:

1. Any person or entity owning or operating any cable system or any fiber optic, photooptical, electromagnetic, photoelectronic, satellite, wireless, microwave, radio, data transmission, or Internet-based distribution network, system, or facility.

2. Any person or entity providing any lawful communications service, whether directly or indirectly, as a reseller or licensee, by or through any such distribution network, system, or facility.

(f) "Manufacture, development, or assembly of a communications device" means to make, produce, develop, or assemble a communications device or any part, accessory, or component thereof, or to modify, alter, program, or reprogram any communications device so that it is capable of facilitating the commission of a violation of this section.

(g) "Multipurpose device" means any communications device that is capable of more than one function and includes any component thereof.

(2)(a) A person may not knowingly intercept, receive, decrypt, disrupt, transmit, retransmit, or acquire access to any communications service without the express authorization of the cable operator or other communications service provider, as stated in a contract or otherwise, with the intent to defraud the cable operator or communications service provider, or to knowingly assist others in doing those acts with the intent to defraud the cable operator or other communications provider. For the purpose of this section, the term "assist others" includes:

1. The sale, transfer, license, distribution, deployment, lease, manufacture, development, or assembly of a communications device for the purpose of facilitating the unauthorized receipt, acquisition, interception, disruption, decryption, transmission, retransmission, or access to any communications service offered by a cable operator or any other communications service provider; or

2. The sale, transfer, license, distribution, deployment, lease, manufacture, development, or assembly of a communications device for the purpose of defeating or circumventing any effective technology, device, or software, or any component or part thereof, used by a cable operator or other communications service provider to protect any communications service from unauthorized receipt, acquisition, interception, disruption, access, decryption, transmission, or retransmission.

(b) Any person who willfully violates this subsection commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3)(a) Any person who willfully violates paragraph (2)(a), paragraph (4)(a), or subsection (5) and who has been previously convicted of any such provision commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(b) Any person who willfully and for purposes of direct or indirect commercial advantage or private financial gain violates paragraph (2)(a), paragraph (4)(a), or subsection (5) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(4)(a) Any person who intentionally possesses a communications device, knowing or having reason to know that the design of such device renders it primarily useful for the purpose of committing, or assisting others in committing, a violation of paragraph (2)(a) commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) Any person who intentionally possesses five or more communications devices and knows or has reason to know that the design of such devices renders them primarily useful for committing, or assisting others in committing, a violation of paragraph (2)(a) commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(c) Any person who intentionally possesses fifty or more communications devices and knows or has reason to know that the design of such devices renders them primarily useful for committing, or assisting others in committing, a violation of paragraph (2)(a) commits a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(5) It is unlawful for any person to place in any newspaper, magazine, handbill, or other publication, including any electronic medium, any advertisement that, in whole or in part, promotes the sale of a communications device if the person placing the advertisement knows or has reason to know that the device is designed to be primarily useful for committing, or assisting others in committing, a violation of paragraph (2)(a). Any person who violates this subsection shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(6) All fines shall be imposed as provided in s. 775.083 for each communications device involved in the prohibited activity or for each day a defendant is in violation of this section.

(7) The court shall, in addition to any other sentence authorized by law, sentence a person convicted of violating this section to make restitution as authorized by law.

(8) Upon conviction of a defendant for violating this section, the court may, in addition to any other sentence authorized by law, direct that the defendant forfeit any communications device in the defendant's possession or control which was involved in the violation for which the defendant was convicted.

(9) A violation of paragraph (2)(a) may be deemed to have been committed at any place where the defendant manufactures, develops, or assembles any communications devices involved in the violation, or assists others in these acts, or any place where the communications device is sold or delivered to a purchaser or recipient. It is not a defense to a violation of paragraph (2)(a) that some of the acts constituting the violation occurred outside the state.

(10)(a) -- not included, as this is the civil remedy section.

812.155 Hiring, leasing, or obtaining personal property or equipment with the intent to defraud; failing to return hired or leased personal property or equipment; rules of evidence.--

(1) OBTAINING BY TRICK, FALSE REPRESENTATION, ETC.--Whoever, with the intent to defraud the owner or any person lawfully possessing any personal property or equipment, obtains the custody of such personal property or equipment by trick, deceit, or fraudulent or willful false representation shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, unless the value of the personal property or equipment is of a value of $300 or more; in that event the violation constitutes a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(2) HIRING OR LEASING WITH THE INTENT TO DEFRAUD.--Whoever, with intent to defraud the owner or any person lawfully possessing any personal property or equipment of the rental thereof, hires or leases said personal property or equipment from such owner or such owner's agents or any person in lawful possession thereof shall, upon conviction, be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, unless the value of the personal property or equipment is of a value of $300 or more; in that event the violation constitutes a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) FAILURE TO REDELIVER HIRED OR LEASED PERSONAL PROPERTY.--Whoever, after hiring or leasing any personal property or equipment under an agreement to redeliver the same to the person letting such personal property or equipment or his or her agent at the termination of the period for which it was let, shall, without the consent of such person or persons and with the intent to defraud, abandon or willfully refuse to redeliver such personal property or equipment as agreed, shall, upon conviction, be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083, unless the value of the personal property or equipment is of a value of $300 or more; in that event the violation constitutes a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(4) EVIDENCE OF FRAUDULENT INTENT.--

(a) In prosecutions under this section, obtaining the property or equipment under false pretenses; absconding without payment; or removing or attempting to remove the property or equipment from the county without the express written consent of the lessor, is prima facie evidence of fraudulent intent.

(b) In a prosecution under subsection (3), failure to redeliver the property or equipment within 5 days after receipt of, or within 5 days after return receipt from, the certified mailing of the demand for return is prima facie evidence of fraudulent intent. Notice mailed by certified mail, return receipt requested, to the address given by the renter at the time of rental shall be deemed sufficient and equivalent to notice having been received by the renter, should the notice be returned undelivered.

(c) In a prosecution under subsection (3), failure to pay any amount due which is incurred as the result of the failure to redeliver property after the rental period expires, and after the demand for return is made, is prima facie evidence of fraudulent intent. Amounts due include unpaid rental for the time period during which the property or equipment was not returned and include the lesser of the cost of repairing or replacing the property or equipment if it has been damaged.

(5) DEMAND FOR RETURN.--Demand for return of overdue property or equipment and for payment of amounts due may be made in person, by hand delivery, or by certified mail, return receipt requested, addressed to the lessee's address shown in the rental contract.

(6) NOTICE REQUIRED.--As a prerequisite to prosecution under this section, the following statement must be contained in the agreement under which the owner or person lawfully possessing the property or equipment has relinquished its custody, or in an addendum to that agreement, and the statement must be initialed by the person hiring or leasing the rental property or equipment:

Failure to return rental property or equipment upon expiration of the rental period and failure to pay all amounts due (including costs for damage to the property or equipment) are prima facie evidence of intent to defraud, punishable in accordance with section 812.155, Florida Statutes.

(7) EXCLUSION OF RENTAL-PURCHASE AGREEMENTS.--This section does not apply to personal property or equipment that is the subject of a rental-purchase agreement that permits the lessee to acquire ownership of the personal property or equipment unless the rental store retains title to the personal property or equipment throughout the rental-purchase agreement period.

812.16 Operating chop shops; definitions; penalties; restitution; forfeiture.--

(1) As used in this section, the term:

(a) "Chop shop" means any area, building, storage lot, field, or other premises or place where one or more persons are engaged or have engaged in altering, dismantling, reassembling, or in any way concealing or disguising the identity of a stolen motor vehicle or of any major component part of a stolen motor vehicle; where there are two or more stolen motor vehicles present; or where there are major component parts from two or more stolen motor vehicles present.

(b) "Major component part" means one of the following sub-assemblies of a motor vehicle, regardless of its actual market value: front-end assembly, including fenders, grills, hood, bumper, and related parts; frame and frame assembly; engine; transmission; T-tops; rear clip assembly, including quarter panels and floor panel assembly; doors; and tires, tire wheels, and continuous treads and other devices.

(c) "Motor vehicle" includes every device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway, which device is self-propelled or may be connected to and towed by a self-propelled device, and also includes any and all other land-based devices which are self-propelled but which are not designed for use upon a highway, including but not limited to farm machinery and steam shovels.

(2) Any person who knowingly owns, operates, or conducts a chop shop or who knowingly aids and abets another person in owning, operating, or conducting a chop shop is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) A person who violates this section, upon conviction, in addition to any other punishment, may be ordered to make restitution to the rightful owner of a stolen motor vehicle or of a stolen major component part, or to the owner's insurer if the owner has already been compensated for the loss by the insurer, for any financial loss sustained as a result of the theft of the motor vehicle or a major component part. Restitution may be imposed in addition to any imprisonment or fine imposed, but not in lieu thereof.

(4) The following may be seized and are subject to forfeiture pursuant to ss. 932.701-932.704:

(a) Any stolen motor vehicle or major component part found at the site of a chop shop or any motor vehicle or major component part for which there is probable cause to believe that it is stolen but for which the true owner cannot be identified.

(b) Any engine, tool, machine, implement, device, chemical, or substance used or designed for altering, dismantling, reassembling, or in any other way concealing or disguising the identity of a stolen motor vehicle or any major component part.

(c) A wrecker, car hauler, or other motor vehicle that is knowingly used or has been used to convey or transport a stolen motor vehicle or major component part.

812.1701 Short title.--Sections 812.1701-812.175 may be cited as the "Convenience Business Security Act."

812.171 Definition.--As used in this act, the term "convenience business" means any place of business that is primarily engaged in the retail sale of groceries, or both groceries and gasoline, and that is open for business at any time between the hours of 11 p.m. and 5 a.m. The term "convenience business" does not include:

(1) A business that is solely or primarily a restaurant.

(2) A business that always has at least five employees on the premises after 11 p.m. and before 5 a.m.

(3) A business that has at least 10,000 square feet of retail floor space.

The term "convenience business" does not include any business in which the owner or members of his or her family work between the hours of 11 p.m. and 5 a.m.

812.172 Intent.--The Legislature finds that the provisions of this act are intended to prevent violent crimes and thereby to protect employees and the consumer public at late-night convenience businesses. It is the further intent of the Legislature that security standards for late-night convenience businesses be uniform throughout this state.

812.1725 Preemption.-- not included as it is not relevant to criminal law.

812.173 Convenience business security.--

(1) Every convenience business shall be equipped with the following security devices and standards:

(a) A security camera system capable of recording and retrieving an image to assist in offender identification and apprehension.

(b) A drop safe or cash management device for restricted access to cash receipts.

(c) A lighted parking lot illuminated at an intensity of at least 2 foot-candles per square foot at 18 inches above the surface.

(d) A conspicuous notice at the entrance which states that the cash register contains $50 or less.

(e) Window signage that allows a clear and unobstructed view from outside the building and in a normal line of sight of the cash register and sales transaction area.

(f) Height markers at the entrance of the convenience business which display height measures.

(g) A cash management policy to limit the cash on hand at all times after 11 p.m.

(2) A convenience business shall not have window tinting that reduces exterior or interior view in a normal line of sight.

(3) Every convenience business shall be equipped with a silent alarm to law enforcement or a private security agency, unless application for an exemption is made to and granted by the Attorney General. An application for exemption must be in writing and must be accompanied by an administrative fee of $25 for each store for which an exemption would apply.

(4) If a murder, robbery, sexual battery, aggravated assault, aggravated battery, or kidnapping or false imprisonment, as those crimes are identified and defined by Florida Statutes, occurs or has occurred at a convenience business since July 1, 1989, and arises out of the operation of the convenience business, that convenience business shall implement at least one of the following security measures:

(a) Provide at least two employees on the premises at all times after 11 p.m. and before 5 a.m.;

(b) Install for use by employees at all times after 11 p.m. and before 5 a.m. a secured safety enclosure of transparent polycarbonate or other material that meets at least one of the following minimum standards:

1. American Society for Testing and Materials Standard D3935 (classification PC110 B 3 0800700) and that has a thickness of at least 0.375 inches and has an impact strength of at least 200 foot pounds; or

2. Underwriters Laboratory Standard UL 752 for medium power small arms (level one), Bullet Resisting Equipment;

(c) Provide a security guard on the premises at all times after 11 p.m. and before 5 a.m.;

(d) Lock the business premises throughout the hours of 11 p.m. to 5 a.m., and only transact business through an indirect pass-through trough, trapdoor, or window; or

(e) Close the business at all times after 11 p.m. and before 5 a.m.

(5) For purposes of this section, any convenience business that by law implemented any of the security measures set forth in paragraphs (4)(a)-(e) and has maintained said measures as required by the Department of Legal Affairs without any occurrence or incidence of the crimes identified by subsection (4) for a period of no less than 24 months immediately preceding the filing of a notice of exemption, may file with the department a notice of exemption from these enhanced security measures. In no event shall this exemption be interpreted to preclude full compliance with the security measures set forth in subsection (4) should any occurrence or incidence of the crimes identified by subsection (4) cause subsection (4) to be statutorily applicable. As of the date this act becomes law, the Department of Legal Affairs will provide notice to any convenience business to which a subsection (4) incident has previously occurred. In no event shall the state or the Department of Legal Affairs incur any liability for the regulation and enforcement of this act.

812.174 Training of employees.-- not included as this is a civil section of the statute.

812.175 Enforcement; civil fine.-- not included as this is a civil section of the statute.

812.176 Rulemaking authority.-- not included as this is a chapter 120 administrative provision.

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