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850-651-6565

Florida Criminal Law - Burglary & Trepass

810.011 Definitions.

810.015 Legislative findings and intent; burglary.

810.02 Burglary.

810.06 Possession of burglary tools.

810.061 Impairing or impeding telephone or power to a dwelling; facilitating or furthering a burglary; penalty.

810.07 Prima facie evidence of intent.

810.08 Trespass in structure or conveyance.

810.09 Trespass on property other than structure or conveyance.

810.095 Trespass on school property with firearm or other weapon prohibited.

810.097 Trespass upon grounds or facilities of a school; penalties; arrest.

810.0975 School safety zones; definition; trespass prohibited; penalty.

810.10 Posted land; removing notices unlawful; penalty.

810.11 Placing signs adjacent to highways; penalty.

810.115 Breaking or injuring fences.

810.12 Unauthorized entry on land; prima facie evidence of trespass.

810.13 Cave vandalism and related offenses.

810.14 Voyeurism prohibited; penalties.

810.145 Video voyeurism.

810.011 Definitions
.--As used in this chapter:

(1) "Structure" means a building of any kind, either temporary or permanent, which has a roof over it, together with the curtilage thereof. However, during the time of a state of emergency declared by executive order or proclamation of the Governor under chapter 252 and within the area covered by such executive order or proclamation and for purposes of ss. 810.02 and 810.08 only, the term means a building of any kind or such portions or remnants thereof as exist at the original site, regardless of absence of a wall or roof.

(2) "Dwelling" means a building or conveyance of any kind, including any attached porch, whether such building or conveyance is temporary or permanent, mobile or immobile, which has a roof over it and is designed to be occupied by people lodging therein at night, together with the curtilage thereof. However, during the time of a state of emergency declared by executive order or proclamation of the Governor under chapter 252 and within the area covered by such executive order or proclamation and for purposes of ss. 810.02 and 810.08 only, the term includes such portions or remnants thereof as exist at the original site, regardless of absence of a wall or roof.

(3) "Conveyance" means any motor vehicle, ship, vessel, railroad vehicle or car, trailer, aircraft, or sleeping car; and "to enter a conveyance" includes taking apart any portion of the conveyance. However, during the time of a state of emergency declared by executive order or proclamation of the Governor under chapter 252 and within the area covered by such executive order or proclamation and for purposes of ss. 810.02 and 810.08 only, the term "conveyance" means a motor vehicle, ship, vessel, railroad vehicle or car, trailer, aircraft, or sleeping car or such portions thereof as exist.

(4) An act is committed "in the course of committing" if it occurs in an attempt to commit the offense or in flight after the attempt or commission.

(5)(a) "Posted land" is that land upon which signs are placed not more than 500 feet apart along, and at each corner of, the boundaries of the land, upon which signs there appears prominently, in letters of not less than 2 inches in height, the words "no trespassing" and in addition thereto the name of the owner, lessee, or occupant of said land. Said signs shall be placed along the boundary line of posted land in a manner and in such position as to be clearly noticeable from outside the boundary line.

(b) It shall not be necessary to give notice by posting on any enclosed land or place not exceeding 5 acres in area on which there is a dwelling house in order to obtain the benefits of ss. 810.09 and 810.12 pertaining to trespass on enclosed lands.

(6) "Cultivated land" is that land which has been cleared of its natural vegetation and is presently planted with a crop, orchard, grove, pasture, or trees or is fallow land as part of a crop rotation.

(7) "Fenced land" is that land which has been enclosed by a fence of substantial construction, whether with rails, logs, post and railing, iron, steel, barbed wire, other wire, or other material, which stands at least 3 feet in height. For the purpose of this chapter, it shall not be necessary to fence any boundary or part of a boundary of any land which is formed by water.

(8) Where lands are posted, cultivated, or fenced as described herein, then said lands, for the purpose of this chapter, shall be considered as enclosed and posted.

(9) "Litter" means any garbage, rubbish, trash, refuse, debris, can, bottle, box, container, paper, tobacco product, tire, domestic or commercial appliance, mechanical equipment or part, building or construction material, tool, machinery, wood, motor vehicle or motor vehicle part, vessel, aircraft, or farm machinery or equipment; sludge from a waste treatment facility, water supply treatment plant, or air pollution control facility; or substance in any form resulting from domestic, industrial, commercial, mining, agricultural, or governmental operations.

(10) "Dump" means to dump, throw, discard, place, deposit, or dispose of any litter.

(11) "Commercial horticulture property" means any property that is cleared of its natural vegetation and is planted in commercially cultivated horticulture products that are planted, grown, or harvested. The term also includes property that is used for the commercial sale, use, or distribution of horticulture products.

810.015 Legislative findings and intent; burglary.--

(1) The Legislature finds that the case of Delgado v. State, 776 So. 2d 233 (Fla. 2000), was decided contrary to legislative intent and the case law of this state relating to burglary prior to Delgado v. State. The Legislature finds that in order for a burglary to occur, it is not necessary for the licensed or invited person to remain in the dwelling, structure, or conveyance surreptitiously.

(2) It is the intent of the Legislature that the holding in Delgado v. State, 776 So. 2d 233 (Fla. 2000) be nullified. It is further the intent of the Legislature that s. 810.02(1)(a) be construed in conformity with Raleigh v. State, 705 So. 2d 1324 (Fla. 1997); Jimenez v. State, 703 So. 2d 437 (Fla. 1997); Robertson v. State, 699 So. 2d 1343 (Fla. 1997); Routly v. State, 440 So. 2d 1257 (Fla. 1983); and Ray v. State, 522 So. 2d 963 (Fla. 3rd DCA, 1988). This subsection shall operate retroactively to February 1, 2000.

(3) It is further the intent of the Legislature that consent remain an affirmative defense to burglary and that the lack of consent may be proven by circumstantial evidence.

(4) The Legislature finds that the cases of Floyd v. State, 850 So. 2d 383 (Fla. 2002); Fitzpatrick v. State, 859 So. 2d 486 (Fla. 2003); and State v. Ruiz/State v. Braggs, Slip Opinion Nos. SC02-389/SC02-524 were decided contrary to the Legislative intent expressed in this section. The Legislature finds that these cases were decided in such a manner as to give subsection (1) no effect. The February 1, 2000, date reflected in subsection (2) does not refer to an arbitrary date relating to the date offenses were committed, but to a date before which the law relating to burglary was untainted by Delgado v. State, 776 So. 2d 233 (Fla. 2000).

(5) The Legislature provides the following special rules of construction to apply to this section:

(a) All subsections in this section shall be construed to give effect to subsection (1);

(b) Notwithstanding s. 775.021(1), this section shall be construed to give the interpretation of the burglary statute announced in Delgado v. State, 776 So. 2d 233 (Fla. 2000), and its progeny, no effect; and

(c) If language in this section is susceptible to differing constructions, it shall be construed in such manner as to approximate the law relating to burglary as if Delgado v. State, 776 So. 2d 233 (Fla. 2000) was never issued.

(6) This section shall apply retroactively.

810.02 Burglary.--

(1)(a) For offenses committed on or before July 1, 2001, "burglary" means entering or remaining in a dwelling, a structure, or a conveyance with the intent to commit an offense therein, unless the premises are at the time open to the public or the defendant is licensed or invited to enter or remain.

(b) For offenses committed after July 1, 2001, "burglary" means:

1. Entering a dwelling, a structure, or a conveyance with the intent to commit an offense therein, unless the premises are at the time open to the public or the defendant is licensed or invited to enter; or

2. Notwithstanding a licensed or invited entry, remaining in a dwelling, structure, or conveyance:

a. Surreptitiously, with the intent to commit an offense therein;

b. After permission to remain therein has been withdrawn, with the intent to commit an offense therein; or

c. To commit or attempt to commit a forcible felony, as defined in s. 776.08.

(2) Burglary is a felony of the first degree, punishable by imprisonment for a term of years not exceeding life imprisonment or as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if, in the course of committing the offense, the offender:

(a) Makes an assault or battery upon any person; or

(b) Is or becomes armed within the dwelling, structure, or conveyance, with explosives or a dangerous weapon; or

(c) Enters an occupied or unoccupied dwelling or structure, and:

1. Uses a motor vehicle as an instrumentality, other than merely as a getaway vehicle, to assist in committing the offense, and thereby damages the dwelling or structure; or

2. Causes damage to the dwelling or structure, or to property within the dwelling or structure in excess of $1,000.

(3) Burglary is a felony of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if, in the course of committing the offense, the offender does not make an assault or battery and is not and does not become armed with a dangerous weapon or explosive, and the offender enters or remains in a:

(a) Dwelling, and there is another person in the dwelling at the time the offender enters or remains;

(b) Dwelling, and there is not another person in the dwelling at the time the offender enters or remains;

(c) Structure, and there is another person in the structure at the time the offender enters or remains; or

(d) Conveyance, and there is another person in the conveyance at the time the offender enters or remains.

(4) Burglary is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if, in the course of committing the offense, the offender does not make an assault or battery and is not and does not become armed with a dangerous weapon or explosive, and the offender enters or remains in a:

(a) Structure, and there is not another person in the structure at the time the offender enters or remains; or

(b) Conveyance, and there is not another person in the conveyance at the time the offender enters or remains.

810.06 Possession of burglary tools.--Whoever has in his or her possession any tool, machine, or implement with intent to use the same, or allow the same to be used, to commit any burglary or trespass shall be guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

810.061 Impairing or impeding telephone or power to a dwelling; facilitating or furthering a burglary; penalty.--

(1) As used in this section, the term "burglary" has the meaning ascribed in s. 810.02(1)(b).

(2) A person who, for the purpose of facilitating or furthering the commission or attempted commission of a burglary of a dwelling by any person, damages a wire or line that transmits or conveys telephone or power to that dwelling, impairs any other equipment necessary for telephone or power transmission or conveyance, or otherwise impairs or impedes such telephone or power transmission or conveyance commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

810.07 Prima facie evidence of intent.--

(1) In a trial on the charge of burglary, proof of the entering of such structure or conveyance at any time stealthily and without consent of the owner or occupant thereof is prima facie evidence of entering with intent to commit an offense.

(2) In a trial on the charge of attempted burglary, proof of the attempt to enter such structure or conveyance at any time stealthily and without the consent of the owner or occupant thereof is prima facie evidence of attempting to enter with intent to commit an offense.

810.08 Trespass in structure or conveyance.--

(1) Whoever, without being authorized, licensed, or invited, willfully enters or remains in any structure or conveyance, or, having been authorized, licensed, or invited, is warned by the owner or lessee of the premises, or by a person authorized by the owner or lessee, to depart and refuses to do so, commits the offense of trespass in a structure or conveyance.

(2)(a) Except as otherwise provided in this subsection, trespass in a structure or conveyance is a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) If there is a human being in the structure or conveyance at the time the offender trespassed, attempted to trespass, or was in the structure or conveyance, the trespass in a structure or conveyance is a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) If the offender is armed with a firearm or other dangerous weapon, or arms himself or herself with such while in the structure or conveyance, the trespass in a structure or conveyance is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Any owner or person authorized by the owner may, for prosecution purposes, take into custody and detain, in a reasonable manner, for a reasonable length of time, any person when he or she reasonably believes that a violation of this paragraph has been or is being committed, and he or she reasonably believes that the person to be taken into custody and detained has committed or is committing such violation. In the event a person is taken into custody, a law enforcement officer shall be called as soon as is practicable after the person has been taken into custody. The taking into custody and detention by such person, if done in compliance with the requirements of this paragraph, shall not render such person criminally or civilly liable for false arrest, false imprisonment, or unlawful detention.

(3) As used in this section, the term "person authorized" means any owner or lessee, or his or her agent, or any law enforcement officer whose department has received written authorization from the owner or lessee, or his or her agent, to communicate an order to depart the property in the case of a threat to public safety or welfare.

810.09 Trespass on property other than structure or conveyance.--

(1)(a) A person who, without being authorized, licensed, or invited, willfully enters upon or remains in any property other than a structure or conveyance:

1. As to which notice against entering or remaining is given, either by actual communication to the offender or by posting, fencing, or cultivation as described in s. 810.011; or

2. If the property is the unenclosed curtilage of a dwelling and the offender enters or remains with the intent to commit an offense thereon, other than the offense of trespass,

commits the offense of trespass on property other than a structure or conveyance.

(b) As used in this section, the term "unenclosed curtilage" means the unenclosed land or grounds, and any outbuildings, that are directly and intimately adjacent to and connected with the dwelling and necessary, convenient, and habitually used in connection with that dwelling.

(2)(a) Except as provided in this subsection, trespass on property other than a structure or conveyance is a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(b) If the offender defies an order to leave, personally communicated to the offender by the owner of the premises or by an authorized person, or if the offender willfully opens any door, fence, or gate or does any act that exposes animals, crops, or other property to waste, destruction, or freedom; unlawfully dumps litter on property; or trespasses on property other than a structure or conveyance, the offender commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) If the offender is armed with a firearm or other dangerous weapon during the commission of the offense of trespass on property other than a structure or conveyance, he or she is guilty of a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. Any owner or person authorized by the owner may, for prosecution purposes, take into custody and detain, in a reasonable manner, for a reasonable length of time, any person when he or she reasonably believes that a violation of this paragraph has been or is being committed, and that the person to be taken into custody and detained has committed or is committing such violation. In the event a person is taken into custody, a law enforcement officer shall be called as soon as is practicable after the person has been taken into custody. The taking into custody and detention in compliance with the requirements of this paragraph does not result in criminal or civil liability for false arrest, false imprisonment, or unlawful detention.

(d) The offender commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property trespassed is a construction site that is legally posted and identified in substantially the following manner: "THIS AREA IS A DESIGNATED CONSTRUCTION SITE, AND ANYONE WHO TRESPASSES ON THIS PROPERTY COMMITS A FELONY."

(e) The offender commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property trespassed upon is commercial horticulture property and the property is legally posted and identified in substantially the following manner: "THIS AREA IS DESIGNATED COMMERCIAL PROPERTY FOR HORTICULTURE PRODUCTS, AND ANYONE WHO TRESPASSES ON THIS PROPERTY COMMITS A FELONY."

(f) The offender commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, if the property trespassed upon is an agricultural site for testing or research purposes that is legally posted and identified in substantially the following manner: "THIS AREA IS A DESIGNATED AGRICULTURAL SITE FOR TESTING OR RESEARCH PURPOSES, AND ANYONE WHO TRESPASSES ON THIS PROPERTY COMMITS A FELONY."

(g) Any person who in taking or attempting to take any animal described in s. 372.001(10) or (11), or in killing, attempting to kill, or endangering any animal described in s. 585.01(13) knowingly propels or causes to be propelled any potentially lethal projectile over or across private land without authorization commits trespass, a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084. For purposes of this paragraph, the term "potentially lethal projectile" includes any projectile launched from any firearm, bow, crossbow, or similar tensile device. This section shall not apply to any governmental agent or employee acting within the scope of his or her official duties.

(3) As used in this section, the term "authorized person" or "person authorized" means any owner, or his or her agent, or any law enforcement officer whose department has received written authorization from the owner, or his or her agent, to communicate an order to leave the property in the case of a threat to public safety or welfare.

810.095 Trespass on school property with firearm or other weapon prohibited.--

(1) It is a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084, for a person who is trespassing upon school property to bring onto, or to possess on, such school property, any weapon or firearm.

(2) As used in this section, "school property" means the grounds or facility of any kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, junior high school, secondary school, career center, or post-secondary school, whether public or nonpublic.

810.097 Trespass upon grounds or facilities of a school; penalties; arrest.--

(1) Any person who:

(a) Does not have legitimate business on the campus or any other authorization, license, or invitation to enter or remain upon school property; or

(b) Is a student currently under suspension or expulsion;

and who enters or remains upon the campus or any other facility owned by any such school commits a trespass upon the grounds of a school facility and is guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) Any person who enters or remains upon the campus or other facility of a school after the principal of such school, or his or her designee, has directed such person to leave such campus or facility or not to enter upon the campus or facility, commits a trespass upon the grounds of a school facility and is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3) The chief administrative officer of a school, or any employee thereof designated by the chief administrative officer to maintain order on such campus or facility, who has probable cause to believe that a person is trespassing upon school grounds in violation of this section may take such person into custody and detain him or her in a reasonable manner for a reasonable length of time pending arrival of a law enforcement officer. Such taking into custody and detention by an authorized person does not render that person criminally or civilly liable for false arrest, false imprisonment, or unlawful detention. If a trespasser is taken into custody, a law enforcement officer shall be called to the scene immediately after the person is taken into custody.

(4) Any law enforcement officer may arrest either on or off the premises and without warrant any person the officer has probable cause for believing has committed the offense of trespass upon the grounds of a school facility. Such arrest shall not render the law enforcement officer criminally or civilly liable for false arrest, false imprisonment, or unlawful detention.

(5) As used in this section, the term "school" means the grounds or any facility of any kindergarten, elementary school, middle school, junior high school, or secondary school, whether public or nonpublic.

810.0975 School safety zones; definition; trespass prohibited; penalty.--

(1) For the purposes of this section, the term "school safety zone" means in, on, or within 500 feet of any real property owned by or leased to any public or private elementary, middle, or high school or school board and used for elementary, middle, or high school education.

(2)(a) Each principal or designee of each public or private school in this state shall notify the appropriate law enforcement agency to prohibit any person from loitering in the school safety zone who does not have legitimate business in the school safety zone or any other authorization, or license to enter or remain in the school safety zone or does not otherwise have invitee status in the designated safety zone.

(b) During the period from 1 hour prior to the start of a school session until 1 hour after the conclusion of a school session, it is unlawful for any person to enter the premises or trespass within a school safety zone or to remain on such premises or within such school safety zone when that person does not have legitimate business in the school safety zone or any other authorization, license, or invitation to enter or remain in the school safety zone. Any person who violates this subsection commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(c) Any person who does not have legitimate business in the school safety zone or any other authorization, license, or invitation to enter or remain in the school safety zone who shall willfully fail to remove himself or herself from the school safety zone after the principal or designee, having a reasonable belief that he or she will commit a crime or is engaged in harassment or intimidation of students entering or leaving school property, requests him or her to leave the school safety zone commits a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083. Nothing in this section shall be construed to abridge or infringe upon the right of any person to peaceably assemble and protest.

(3) This section does not apply to residents or persons engaged in the operation of a licensed commercial business within the school safety zone.

810.10 Posted land; removing notices unlawful; penalty.--

(1) It is unlawful for any person to willfully remove, destroy, mutilate, or commit any act designed to remove, mutilate, or reduce the legibility or effectiveness of any posted notice placed by the owner, tenant, lessee, or occupant of legally enclosed or legally posted land pursuant to any law of this state for the purpose of legally enclosing the same.

(2) Any person violating the provisions of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

810.11 Placing signs adjacent to highways; penalty.--

(1) All persons are prohibited from placing, posting, or erecting signs upon land or upon trees upon land adjacent to or adjoining all public highways of the state, without the written consent of the owner of such land, or the written consent of the attorney or agent of such owner.

(2) Every person convicted of a violation of this section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor of the second degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

810.115 Breaking or injuring fences.--

(1) Whoever willfully and maliciously breaks down, mars, injures, defaces, cuts, or otherwise creates or causes to be created an opening, gap, interruption, or break in any fence, or any part thereof, belonging to or enclosing land not his or her own, or whoever causes to be broken down, marred, injured, defaced, or cut any fence belonging to or enclosing land not his or her own, commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(2) If the offender breaks or injures a fence as provided in subsection (1) and the fence or any part thereof is used to contain animals at the time of the offense, the offender commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(3) The court may require full compensation to the owner of the fence for any and all damages or losses resulting directly or indirectly from the act or commission pursuant to s. 775.089.

810.12 Unauthorized entry on land; prima facie evidence of trespass.--

(1) The unauthorized entry by any person into or upon any enclosed and posted land shall be prima facie evidence of the intention of such person to commit an act of trespass.

(2) The act of entry upon enclosed and posted land without permission of the owner of said land by any worker, servant, employee, or agent while actually engaged in the performance of his or her work or duties incident to such employment and while under the supervision or direction, or through the procurement, of any other person acting as supervisor, foreman, employer, or principal, or in any other capacity, shall be prima facie evidence of the causing, and of the procurement, of such act by the supervisor, foreman, employer, principal, or other person.

(3) The act committed by any person or persons of taking, transporting, operating, or driving, or the act of permitting or consenting to the taking or transporting of, any machine, tool, motor vehicle, or draft animal into or upon any enclosed and posted land without the permission of the owner of said land by any person who is not the owner of such machine, tool, vehicle, or animal, but with the knowledge or consent of the owner of such machine, tool, vehicle, or animal, or of the person then having the right to possession thereof, shall be prima facie evidence of the intent of such owner of such machine, tool, vehicle, or animal, or of the person then entitled to the possession thereof, to cause or procure an act of trespass.

(4) As used herein, the term "owner of said land" shall include the beneficial owner, lessee, occupant, or other person having any interest in said land under and by virtue of which that person is entitled to possession thereof, and shall also include the agents or authorized employees of such owner.

(5) However, this section shall not apply to any official or employee of the state or a county, municipality, or other governmental agency now authorized by law to enter upon lands or to registered engineers and surveyors and mappers authorized to enter lands pursuant to ss. 471.027 and 472.029. The provisions of this section shall not apply to the trimming or cutting of trees or timber by municipal or private public utilities, or their employees, contractors, or subcontractors, when such trimming is required for the establishment or maintenance of the service furnished by any such utility.

(6) The unlawful dumping by any person of any litter in violation of s. 403.413(4) is prima facie evidence of the intention of such person to commit an act of trespass. If any waste that is dumped in violation of s. 403.413(4) is discovered to contain any article, including, but not limited to, a letter, bill, publication, or other writing that displays the name of a person thereon, addressed to such person or in any other manner indicating that the article last belonged to such person, that discovery raises a mere inference that the person so identified has violated this section. If the court finds that the discovery of the location of the article is corroborated by the existence of an independent fact or circumstance which, standing alone, would constitute evidence sufficient to prove a violation of s. 403.413(4), such person is rebuttably presumed to have violated that section.

810.13 Cave vandalism and related offenses.--

(1) DEFINITIONS.--As used in this act:

(a) "Cave" means any void, cavity, recess, or system of interconnecting passages which naturally occurs beneath the surface of the earth or within a cliff or ledge, including natural subsurface water and drainage systems but not including any mine, tunnel, aqueduct, or other manmade excavation, and which is large enough to permit a person to enter. The word "cave" includes any cavern, natural pit, or sinkhole which is an extension of an entrance to a cave.

(b) "Cave life" means any life form which is indigenous to a cave or to a cave ecosystem.

(c) "Gate" means any structure or device located to limit or prohibit access or entry to a cave.

(d) "Owner" means a person who owns title to land where a cave is located, including a person who holds a leasehold estate in such land; the state or any of its agencies, departments, boards, bureaus, commissions, or authorities; or any county, municipality, or other political subdivision of the state.

(e) "Person" means any individual, partnership, firm, association, trust, corporation, or other legal entity.

(f) "Sinkhole" means a closed topographic depression or basin, generally draining underground, including, but not restricted to, a doline, limesink, or sink.

(g) "Speleogen" means an erosional feature of a cave boundary, including, but not restricted to, anastomoses, scallops, rills, flutes, spongework, or pendants.

(h) "Speleothem" means a natural mineral formation or deposit occurring in a cave, including, but not restricted to, a stalagmite, stalactite, helictite, anthodite, gypsum flower, gypsum needle, angel hair, soda straw, drapery, bacon, cave pearl, popcorn (coral), rimstone dam, column, or flowstone. Speleothems are commonly composed of calcite, epsomite, gypsum, aragonite, celestite, or other similar minerals.

(2) VANDALISM.--It is unlawful for any person, without the prior written permission of the owner, to:

(a) Break, break off, crack, carve upon, write upon, burn, mark upon, remove, or in any manner destroy, disturb, deface, mar, or harm the surfaces of any cave or any natural material which may be found therein, whether attached or broken, including speleothems, speleogens, or sedimentary deposits. This paragraph does not prohibit minimal disturbance or removal for scientific inquiry.

(b) Break, force, tamper with, or otherwise disturb a lock, gate, door, or other obstruction designed to control or prevent access to a cave, even though entrance thereto may not be gained.

(c) Remove, deface, or tamper with a sign stating that a cave is posted or citing provisions of this act.

(3) CAVE LIFE.--It is unlawful to remove, kill, harm, or otherwise disturb any naturally occurring organism within a cave, except for safety or health reasons. The provisions of this subsection do not prohibit minimal disturbance or removal of organisms for scientific inquiry.

(4) POLLUTION AND LITTERING.--It is unlawful to store in a cave any chemical or other material which may be detrimental or hazardous to the cave, to the mineral deposits therein, to the cave life therein, to the waters of the state, or to persons using such cave for any purposes. It is also unlawful to dump, litter, dispose of, or otherwise place any refuse, garbage, dead animal, sewage, trash, or other similar waste materials in a cave. This subsection shall not apply to activity which is regulated pursuant to s. 373.106, regarding the intentional introduction of water into an underground formation, or chapter 377, regarding the injection of fluids into subsurface formations in connection with oil or gas operations.

(5) SALE OF SPELEOTHEMS.--It is unlawful for any person to sell or offer for sale any speleothems in this state or to transport them for sale outside this state.

(6) PENALTIES.--Any person who violates subsection (2), subsection (3), subsection (4), or subsection (5) is guilty of a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

810.14 Voyeurism prohibited; penalties.--

(1) A person commits the offense of voyeurism when he or she, with lewd, lascivious, or indecent intent, secretly observes, photographs, films, videotapes, or records another person when such other person is located in a dwelling, structure, or conveyance and such location provides a reasonable expectation of privacy.

(2) A person who violates this section commits a misdemeanor of the first degree for the first violation, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(3) A person who violates this section and who has been previously convicted or adjudicated delinquent two or more times of any violation of this section commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(4) For purposes of this section, a person has been previously convicted or adjudicated delinquent of a violation of this section if the violation resulted in a conviction sentenced separately, or an adjudication of delinquency entered separately, prior to the current offense.

810.145 Video voyeurism.--

(1) As used in this section, the term:

(a) "Broadcast" means electronically transmitting a visual image with the intent that it be viewed by another person.

(b) "Imaging device" means any mechanical, digital, or electronic viewing device; still camera; camcorder; motion picture camera; or any other instrument, equipment, or format capable of recording, storing, or transmitting visual images of another person.

(c) "Place and time when a person has a reasonable expectation of privacy" means a place and time when a reasonable person would believe that he or she could fully disrobe in privacy, without being concerned that the person's undressing was being viewed, recorded, or broadcasted by another, including, but not limited to, the interior of a bathroom, changing room, fitting room, dressing room, or tanning booth.

(d) "Privately exposing the body" means exposing a sexual organ.

(2) A person commits the offense of video voyeurism if that person:

(a) For his or her own amusement, entertainment, sexual arousal, gratification, or profit, or for the purpose of degrading or abusing another person, intentionally uses or installs an imaging device to secretly view, broadcast, or record a person, without that person's knowledge and consent, who is dressing, undressing, or privately exposing the body, at a place and time when that person has a reasonable expectation of privacy;

(b) For the amusement, entertainment, sexual arousal, gratification, or profit of another, or on behalf of another, intentionally permits the use or installation of an imaging device to secretly view, broadcast, or record a person, without that person's knowledge and consent, who is dressing, undressing, or privately exposing the body, at a place and time when that person has a reasonable expectation of privacy; or

(c) For the amusement, entertainment, sexual arousal, gratification, or profit of oneself or another, or on behalf of oneself or another, intentionally uses an imaging device to secretly view, broadcast, or record under or through the clothing being worn by another person, without that person's knowledge and consent, for the purpose of viewing the body of, or the undergarments worn by, that person.

(3) A person commits the offense of video voyeurism dissemination if that person, knowing or having reason to believe that an image was created in a manner described in this section, intentionally disseminates, distributes, or transfers the image to another person for the purpose of amusement, entertainment, sexual arousal, gratification, or profit, or for the purpose of degrading or abusing another person.

(4) A person commits the offense of commercial video voyeurism dissemination if that person:

(a) Knowing or having reason to believe that an image was created in a manner described in this section, sells the image for consideration to another person; or

(b) Having created the image in a manner described in this section, disseminates, distributes, or transfers the image to another person for that person to sell the image to others.

(5) This section does not apply to any:

(a) Law enforcement agency conducting surveillance for a law enforcement purpose;

(b) Security system when a written notice is conspicuously posted on the premises stating that a video surveillance system has been installed for the purpose of security for the premises;

(c) Video surveillance device that is installed in such a manner that the presence of the device is clearly and immediately obvious; or

(d) Dissemination, distribution, or transfer of images subject to this section by a provider of an electronic communication service as defined in 18 U.S.C. s. 2510(15), or a provider of a remote computing service as defined in 18 U.S.C. s. 2711(2). For purposes of this section, the exceptions to the definition of "electronic communication" set forth in 18 U.S.C. s. 2510(12)(a), (b), (c), and (d) do not apply, but are included within the definition of the term.

(6) Except as provided in subsection (7), a person who violates this section commits a misdemeanor of the first degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082 or s. 775.083.

(7) A person who violates this section and who has previously been convicted of or adjudicated delinquent for any violation of this section commits a felony of the third degree, punishable as provided in s. 775.082, s. 775.083, or s. 775.084.

(8) For purposes of this section, a person has previously been convicted of or adjudicated delinquent for a violation of this section if the violation resulted in a conviction that was sentenced separately, or an adjudication of delinquency entered separately, prior to the current offense.

This section of Florida law is provided for informational purposes only.  This section does not include case law construction and is not intended to constitute legal interpretation nor advice.

 

 

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